Dental stains are alterations of the original and natural coloration of the tooth caused by various reasons, such as eating habits or unhealthy habits that chemically affect the tooth. The color of the teeth is a subject that increasingly the society receives more attention and this one begins to demand more services of teeth whitening for aesthetic purposes.
Food that darkens our teeth
Basically the color changes of a tooth can be divided into two large groups, the intrinsic stains and the extrinsic stains.
The first, the intrinsic stains are those where the substance that pigment is inside the tooth or forms part of the internal structure of the tissue. They may be permanent or transient and may appear in general, affecting the entire dentition, or in isolation, affecting a single tooth.
There are certain systemic diseases, such as hepatic, hemolytic, metabolic or endocrine disorders that can lead to pigmentation in the teeth. The treatment of this type of pigmentation is usually null because in most cases it affects the temporary dentition, if it affects permanent dentition can be made bleaching more or less aggressive depending on the type of pigmentation.
It may occur that the pigmentation is produced by a malformation of the dental tissue, which in medicine is called dysplasia. The treatment of these structural disorders will depend on the appearance and severity of the same.
The tetracyclines and other antibiotics or drugs may result in different types of stains. Depending on the degree of involvement, either whitening or the use of crowns can be used.
The involvement by fluorosis is caused by excessive intake of fluoride ion during tooth formation. The treatment of fluorosis staining will depend on our aesthetic demand as patients.
Insufficient supply of substances or vitamins involved in the formation of enamel and dentin during odontogenesis, such as vitamins A, C, D, phosphorus or calcium, may lead to the appearance of structural problems manifested by changes in tooth coloration.
Although teeth are highly resistant to temperature changes when the heat exceeds certain degrees, a change in color occurs in both the enamel and the dentin.
As I said at the beginning, there are other types of stains, in this case we will classify them as extrinsic stains, it is important to know that for extrinsic stains to occur in necessary that the previously acquired film on the dental surface has been formed or that there are remains Of the Nashmith membrane. Without this previous protein structure it is impossible that the pigment deposit occurs. Some of the substances that can produce this type of stains are food and tobacco.
Food (coffee, tea, wine, cola, etc …) : within the food stains we have two large groups, the spots that are not long lasting and the permanent ones, although extrinsic. The first group does not interest us, since with a simple brushing they disappear. But within the second group are several foods that condition stains, some of habitual consumption such as coffee tea, wine, cola, etc.
Tobacco: Another factor to consider is smoking, whether cigarettes, cigars or pipes. There are several studies that show how there is a clear difference between the presence of stains in the teeth of smokers and non-smokers, so that, in smokers, 28% have stains, in the group of non-smokers only 15% presented them.
Both types, both intrinsic and extrinsic stains in turn can be permanent or transient, depending on the duration of staining.